Blaming mass shootings on mental illness is 'inaccurate' and 'stigmatizing,' experts say

When tragedy strikes in the form of a mass shooting, families grieve, politicians react, and no further action is usually taken.

Posted: Aug 5, 2019 5:10 PM
Updated: Aug 5, 2019 5:10 PM

President Donald Trump described a weekend of two mass shootings — one in El Paso, Texas, and the other in Dayton, Ohio — as a "mental illness problem."

"We must reform our mental health laws to better identify mentally disturbed individuals who may commit acts of violence and make sure those people not only get treatment but when necessary involuntary confinement," Trump said during a public address on Monday.

"Mental illness and hatred pulls the trigger, not the gun."

Yet mental health experts, including representatives from the American Psychological Association, have called it "unfounded" to blame mass shootings on mental illness in place of considering other possible factors, such as hate, bigotry and access to assault weapons.

Calling every mass shooting a mental health problem is "inaccurate and it's stigmatizing," said Arthur Evans, chief executive officer of the American Psychological Association.

Mental illness affects millions of adults across the country. About 1 in 5 adults in the United States, or 46.6 million, experience mental illness in a given year, according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness.

"The reality is that there are a variety of reasons that mass shootings happen," Evans said. "If this were a mental health issue and this was the only issue involved here, what you would see is roughly the same number of mass shootings around the world and we're not seeing that."

Framing mass shootings as a "mental health issue" certainly could lead to policies aimed at improving mental health, but "that won't prevent the next shooter," said Lori Ann Post, a professor of emergency medicine and medical social sciences at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, who studies violence and policy.

It's estimated that less than 5% of shootings are committed by people with a diagnosable mental illness, Post said.

What makes a mass shooter

Based on the current body of research, mass shootings tend to fall within specific categories, most of which do not explicitly involve mental illness, according to Post, who has been tracking these "typologies" of massacres.

"One of them is hate crime," Post said, referring to the El Paso, Texas, shooter and the previous mass shootings at a Charleston, South Carolina, church in 2015 and the 2016 Pulse nightclub shooting in Orlando, Florida.

"We also see revenge killing," she said, referring to some workplace shootings. "Then we also have some people whose motives are mostly just to kill as many people as possible" or some are "mission oriented."

"Another typology is domestic violence on steroids," Post said, referring to when a violent spouse might kill an entire family. Most mass shootings fall within the categories of domestic violence, hate crimes or retribution killing, she added.

While these scenarios are important to research, Post said that mass shootings overall are rare occurrences.

"Mass shootings make up a half percent of the total deaths in America," Post said.

"Mental health definitely has a role in gun shootings and that's mostly people who are depressed and kill themselves — however, not mass shootings," she said.

Nearly 40,000 people in the United States died by guns in the year 2017, marking the highest number of gun deaths in decades, according to an analysis of data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's WONDER database.

That analysis, conducted by CNN last year, showed that, within the total number of deaths, 23,854 people died from suicide by guns in 2017, the highest number in 18 years. That's a difference of more than 7,000 deaths compared with 16,599 suicide deaths by guns in 1999.

The age-adjusted rate of suicide deaths by firearm rose from 6.0 in 1999 to 6.9 in 2017.

Although they seem like they happen all the time, public mass shootings are rare events and tend to have different motivations, said Jeffrey Swanson, a professor in psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University, who specializes in gun violence and mental illness.

"They range from this extreme anger and hate, to rare manifestations of acute psychopathology," he said. "The risk factors for this kind of violence are non-specific."

He added that the risk factors require more study beyond just mental health research.

"Other countries have the same prevalence of mental illness as we do. They don't have this problem with mass shootings," Swanson said.

"If you look at our violent crime rate in the United States, it's about average compared to countries in Western Europe, the UK, Canada, and Australia," he said. "Our homicide rate is several times higher. One reason is that we have far easier access to guns."

Various epidemiological studies over the past three decades suggest that the vast majority of people with serious mental illnesses, like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or severe depression, are not violent, Swanson added.

Rather, people with severe mental illnesses are more than 10 times more likely to be victims of violent crime than the general population. Only about 3% to 5% of violent acts can be attributed to serious mental illness, according to the US Department of Health and Human Services, in reference to a study by Swanson and his colleagues.

More 'complicated' than just a mental health issue

Instead of policies that restrict gun access based solely on mental illness diagnoses or because a person has made contact with the judicial system or health care agencies due to mental illness, the American Psychological Association, the National Alliance on Mental Illness and other advocacy groups have called for gun access criteria based on more direct indicators of potentially dangerous behavior.

The American Psychological Association recommends prohibiting firearms for high-risk groups, like domestic violence offenders or persons convicted of violent misdemeanor crimes.

"What happened over the weekend shows how complicated the issue of gun violence is. Most people who commit gun violence are not committing mass shootings. Unfortunately, what's happening in cities around the country every day, the majority of people who die by shooting are people who die by suicide," said Evans of the APA.

"We need the research funding so that we can get a better handle on this in the country and secondly our political leaders need to understand the complexity."

Stigma can be a harmful result of routinely blaming mass shootings on mental illness, Rosie Phillips Davis, president of the American Psychological Association, said in a written statement after the shootings.

Especially when "research has shown that only a very small percentage of violent acts are committed by people who are diagnosed with, or in treatment for, mental illness," she said in the statement.

Rather, "as our nation tries to process the unthinkable yet again, it is clearer than ever that we are facing a public health crisis of gun violence fueled by racism, bigotry and hatred. The combination of easy access to assault weapons and hateful rhetoric is toxic."

Indiana Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Cases: 750432

Reported Deaths: 13764
CountyCasesDeaths
Marion1031991782
Lake556411007
Allen41662691
St. Joseph36974564
Hamilton36561417
Elkhart29390459
Tippecanoe22886225
Vanderburgh22549400
Porter19348325
Johnson18432388
Hendricks17608317
Clark13206193
Madison13139344
Vigo12608253
LaPorte12415221
Monroe12188175
Delaware10954198
Howard10285225
Kosciusko9619119
Hancock8562145
Bartholomew8164157
Warrick7856156
Floyd7781180
Grant7232179
Wayne7160201
Boone6939103
Morgan6746141
Dubois6214118
Marshall6208116
Cass6000109
Dearborn589578
Henry5895109
Noble580787
Jackson508975
Shelby500896
Lawrence4738122
Gibson444593
Clinton441455
Harrison441073
DeKalb439485
Montgomery436390
Whitley406343
Huntington402481
Steuben399759
Miami393169
Jasper387454
Knox375890
Putnam372160
Wabash360683
Ripley346970
Adams345355
Jefferson335785
White331553
Daviess3033100
Wells295181
Decatur289992
Greene286885
Fayette284864
Posey273835
LaGrange273072
Scott270156
Clay266448
Washington245234
Randolph244783
Jennings235349
Spencer234431
Starke227958
Fountain220348
Sullivan214343
Owen211658
Fulton202142
Jay200932
Carroll193420
Orange188155
Perry187137
Rush175826
Vermillion174644
Franklin170335
Tipton166146
Parke149316
Pike138234
Blackford136232
Pulaski120547
Newton113736
Brown104043
Crawford102316
Benton101414
Martin91615
Warren83815
Switzerland8118
Union72810
Ohio57811
Unassigned0420

Ohio Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Cases: 1108146

Reported Deaths: 20122
CountyCasesDeaths
Franklin1286421460
Cuyahoga1157382208
Hamilton813551248
Montgomery525311041
Summit48395999
Lucas43343818
Butler38951604
Stark33318929
Lorain25658504
Warren24580303
Mahoning22355603
Lake21166387
Clermont20111253
Delaware18841135
Licking16660222
Fairfield16570204
Trumbull16537482
Medina15603271
Greene15272247
Clark14233306
Wood13287198
Portage13242214
Allen11910239
Richland11601211
Miami10843224
Wayne9130222
Columbiana9029230
Muskingum8906135
Pickaway8658122
Tuscarawas8643248
Marion8641138
Erie8056164
Ashtabula7147179
Hancock6996132
Ross6943161
Geauga6834150
Scioto6534105
Belmont6155174
Union584549
Lawrence5726102
Jefferson5675158
Huron5544122
Sandusky5439125
Darke5415129
Seneca5347126
Washington5318109
Athens523660
Auglaize501887
Mercer487385
Shelby476595
Knox4570112
Madison444065
Ashland435597
Putnam4336103
Defiance432298
Fulton432072
Crawford4036110
Brown402461
Logan387577
Preble3848104
Clinton379166
Ottawa373581
Highland359665
Williams348078
Champaign344258
Guernsey324853
Jackson318154
Perry297350
Morrow291840
Fayette285450
Hardin274965
Henry273367
Holmes2699101
Coshocton268960
Van Wert247264
Adams243156
Pike242835
Gallia240750
Wyandot234556
Hocking220162
Carroll197148
Paulding176542
Meigs148240
Monroe136344
Noble136039
Harrison114138
Morgan109624
Vinton85517
Unassigned03
Fort Wayne
Partly Cloudy
67° wxIcon
Hi: 90° Lo: 65°
Feels Like: 67°
Angola
Partly Cloudy
° wxIcon
Hi: 86° Lo: 63°
Feels Like: °
Huntington
Partly Cloudy
71° wxIcon
Hi: 90° Lo: 66°
Feels Like: 71°
Decatur
Partly Cloudy
73° wxIcon
Hi: 91° Lo: 67°
Feels Like: 73°
Van Wert
Partly Cloudy
68° wxIcon
Hi: 90° Lo: 64°
Feels Like: 68°
Our next system brings us the potential for strong to severe thunderstorms on Friday.
WFFT Radar
WFFT Temperatures
WFFT National

Community Events