Michigan hit hard by deadly hepatitis A outbreak

A hepatitis A outbreak has hit several states across the country, killing dozens of people and potentially sickening ...

Posted: Jan 14, 2018 10:44 AM
Updated: Jan 14, 2018 10:44 AM

A hepatitis A outbreak has hit several states across the country, killing dozens of people and potentially sickening thousands. Michigan has been hardest-hit in terms of deaths, with 22.

The outbreak there began in August 2016 and, after a dropoff during the winter, continued to climb last year, according to the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services.

A hepatitis A outbreak continues in several states

Michigan has seen 22 deaths and 658 cases

"We currently have 677 cases in Michigan and continue to see approximately 15-20 cases matching into the cluster every week," Lynn Sutfin, spokeswoman for the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, wrote in an email. "The Michigan outbreak now includes 15 different county jurisdictions. We believe that person-to-person transmission is the primary route of infection."

Fighting the outbreak was challenging in some jurisdictions due to a national shortage of the vaccine for hepatitis A.

"Vaccine supply is still 'constrained,' " Sutfin wrote. "We continue to prioritize vaccine to the highest risk individuals that have been identified and focus our vaccination efforts in the parts of the state who are experiencing the largest number of cases."

Vaccine supplier Merck said the shortage of pre-filled syringes, the easiest to administer, would not ease until the second quarter of 2018. However, vials containing 10 single doses are available.

"The company is taking steps to continue to increase our capacity to meet demand globally in 2018," Merck spokeswoman Pamela Eisele wrote in an email. "We apologize for any inconvenience this supply availability may be causing."

The only other vaccine maker, GlaxoSmithKline, said it has adult hepatitis A vaccine in prefilled syringes in stock and is "working diligently to increase our supply." The company is also working closely with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, spokeswoman Robin Gaitens wrote in an email, to ensure that its vaccines "are directed to areas of greatest need."

California epicenter: San Diego

In California, the outbreak can be traced to transient camps and illicit drug users in San Diego, officials say. Now, the state is in the middle of the biggest person-to-person outbreak of hepatitis A since the vaccine first became available in the mid-'90s, according to the California Department of Public Health. Though the virus has spread across the state, San Diego has seen the most deaths: 21, out of a reported 686 cases.

Officials say movement among the homeless population has also spread the virus to Utah, Arizona and Colorado. Cases of hepatitis A in Colorado doubled in 2017, specifically among "gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with unvaccinated men," said health officials. However, only one of those cases was linked to San Diego, according to Shannon Barbare of the Colorado Disease Control and Environmental Epidemiology Division, and the outbreak now appears to be over.

Over the weekend, officials in Utah announced a new outbreak at a convenience store in Salt Lake County that can be traced to San Diego.

"We have 97 outbreak-related cases in our county," Salt Lake County Health Department spokesman Nicholas Rupp said, adding that those cases were tied to a worker at a 7-Eleven who tested positive for the same strain of the virus as that in San Diego. "We are seeing similar hospitalization rates as San Diego, about 60%, but we have fortunately not seen any deaths."

Just south of Salt Lake, workers at two Utah County restaurants also tested positive for the virus in late December.

"In Utah, we don't require vaccinations for food workers against hepatitis A, but we are encouraging everyone who handles food to be vaccinated, and this is why," Rupp said. "And everyone should practice handwashing after being in public places to protect themselves from exposure."

Consumers who used the restroom at or ate at the two restaurants are at risk, health officials said, and those who visited the 7-Eleven and consumed any self-serve beverage, fresh fruit or items from the hot food case, such as pizza, hot dogs or chicken wings, may have been exposed. Packaged foods are not affected, according to the Health Department.

Rupp said the Salt Lake County Health Department has fielded hundreds of phone calls since it announced the 7-Eleven exposure Sunday and referred about 70% of those callers for vaccination.

"If they receive the vaccine within 14 days of exposure, the vaccine will act as a preventative to the virus," Rupp said, adding that exposure could only have occurred December 26 through January 3.

The state of Utah has confirmed 152 total cases as part of this outbreak; no deaths have been reported.

What is hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver disease caused by the HAV virus. The virus is found in the feces of people with the disease and is most frequently transmitted by eating food or drinking water handled by someone who has not properly washed their hands. It also can be transmitted by sex and by illicit drug use.

Some of the most common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite and jaundice, or yellowing of the skin or eyes. It can take 15 to 50 days to show symptoms of the infection; however, an infected person is most contagious during the two weeks before their skin turns yellow.

Most people recover from the virus and are immune to further infection, according to the CDC, but some can develop liver failure that leads to death. That is most common in people with compromised immune systems, those older than 50 and those with other liver diseases.

According to the CDC, the hepatitis A virus is very hard to kill and can live for months outside the body. Hand sanitizers are not effective against the virus, so frequent handwashing is critical to controlling any outbreak.

Outbreaks of hepatitis A are normally small; rates have declined 95% since the vaccine became available in 1995. GlaxoSmithKline and Merck are the only companies approved by the Food and Drug Administration to sell a hepatitis A adult or pediatric vaccine in the US.

The current outbreaks of hepatitis A, virus genotype IB, is normally not found in the US; it's more common to the Mediterranean, Turkey and South Africa. However, the current vaccine is effective against all strains of the virus.

Indiana Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Cases: 318894

Reported Deaths: 5561
CountyCasesDeaths
Marion43391855
Lake27599462
Allen18363299
Elkhart17474226
St. Joseph17071234
Hamilton13376169
Vanderburgh9839121
Tippecanoe880629
Porter844886
Johnson6556169
Hendricks6267158
Vigo618187
Monroe542850
Clark522877
Madison5153122
Delaware5014103
LaPorte474695
Kosciusko468540
Howard357977
Warrick329872
Floyd324978
Bartholomew323563
Wayne318074
Marshall308146
Cass302631
Grant282050
Noble261546
Hancock260355
Henry252837
Boone248754
Dubois242931
Dearborn222631
Jackson222534
Morgan215543
Knox189720
Shelby189556
Gibson189426
Clinton182121
DeKalb181632
Lawrence179748
Adams171022
Wabash168121
Miami166614
Daviess160144
Steuben150713
Fayette150034
Jasper147413
Montgomery146627
Harrison145524
LaGrange145031
Whitley140814
Ripley138515
Huntington130910
Decatur128243
Wells127930
Putnam127828
White127522
Clay126523
Randolph126121
Posey124116
Jefferson122916
Scott112320
Greene104653
Jay100713
Sullivan99216
Starke94021
Jennings88714
Fulton86419
Spencer8588
Perry83721
Fountain8078
Washington7837
Franklin71327
Carroll69613
Orange69028
Vermillion6444
Owen6317
Tipton58927
Parke5886
Newton56912
Rush5658
Blackford54012
Pike51619
Pulaski41115
Martin3645
Benton3553
Brown3514
Crawford3031
Union2752
Switzerland2605
Warren2542
Ohio2337
Unassigned0266

Ohio Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Cases: 382743

Reported Deaths: 6274
CountyCasesDeaths
Franklin51161671
Cuyahoga37222743
Hamilton30493372
Montgomery20518236
Butler15199148
Lucas14566417
Summit13933327
Stark9193206
Warren841976
Mahoning7530300
Lake710067
Lorain6690106
Clermont593651
Delaware572537
Licking564577
Trumbull5584147
Fairfield554464
Greene538066
Clark5218101
Allen494989
Marion476759
Medina471657
Wood4598107
Miami437568
Pickaway404048
Portage358972
Columbiana357698
Tuscarawas342667
Richland328539
Wayne327394
Mercer296047
Muskingum252510
Hancock245940
Ross244559
Auglaize236435
Darke232560
Erie230268
Putnam229449
Ashtabula228354
Geauga211851
Scioto200616
Union19668
Shelby194017
Lawrence193039
Athens19134
Seneca182919
Belmont170229
Madison163119
Sandusky157729
Preble156521
Huron155519
Defiance144823
Holmes140439
Logan133517
Knox131718
Fulton128726
Jefferson128613
Crawford126817
Washington125227
Ottawa124530
Clinton109115
Williams10799
Ashland107825
Highland103718
Brown10135
Henry101323
Hardin99719
Champaign9825
Van Wert97318
Jackson96212
Fayette92717
Morrow9202
Guernsey89314
Coshocton85215
Perry82912
Adams80313
Pike7661
Gallia76513
Wyandot73217
Paulding66511
Hocking64516
Noble62224
Carroll48810
Meigs39612
Monroe32321
Morgan2685
Vinton2246
Harrison2193
Unassigned00
Fort Wayne
Overcast
41° wxIcon
Hi: 45° Lo: 28°
Feels Like: 38°
Angola
Overcast
41° wxIcon
Hi: 43° Lo: 28°
Feels Like: 37°
Huntington
Overcast
42° wxIcon
Hi: 45° Lo: 27°
Feels Like: 39°
Decatur
Overcast
41° wxIcon
Hi: 46° Lo: 29°
Feels Like: 41°
Van Wert
Overcast
41° wxIcon
Hi: 47° Lo: 29°
Feels Like: 41°
Mostly Cloudy Black Friday
WFFT Radar
WFFT Temperatures
WFFT National

Community Events